Planetary migration in the GJ876 system (C)ΒΆ

This example applies dissipative forces to two bodies orbiting a central object. The forces are specified in terms of damping timescales for the semi-major axis and eccentricity. This mimics planetary migration in a protostellar disc. The example reproduces the study of Lee & Peale (2002) on the formation of the planetary system GJ876. For a comparison, see figure 4 in their paper. The IAS15 or WHFAST integrators can be used. Note that the forces are velocity dependent. Special thanks goes to Willy Kley for helping me to implement the damping terms as actual forces.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <math.h>
#include "rebound.h"

double* tau_a;     /**< Migration timescale in years for all particles */
double* tau_e;     /**< Eccentricity damping timescale in years for all particles */
double tmax;

void migration_forces(struct reb_simulation* r);
void heartbeat(struct reb_simulation* r);

int main(int argc, char* argv[]){
    struct reb_simulation* r = reb_create_simulation();
    // Setup constants
    r->integrator    = REB_INTEGRATOR_WHFAST;
    //r->integrator    = REB_INTEGRATOR_IAS15;
    r->dt         = 1e-2*2.*M_PI;        // in year/(2*pi)
    r->additional_forces = migration_forces;     //Set function pointer to add dissipative forces.
    r->heartbeat = heartbeat;
    r->force_is_velocity_dependent = 1;
    tmax        = 2.0e4*2.*M_PI;    // in year/(2*pi)

    // Initial conditions
    // Parameters are those of Lee & Peale 2002, Figure 4.
    struct reb_particle star = {0};
    star.m  = 0.32;            // This is a sub-solar mass star
    reb_add(r, star);

    struct reb_particle p1 = {0};    // Planet 1
    p1.x     = 0.5;
    p1.m      = 0.56e-3;
    p1.vy     = sqrt(r->G*(star.m+p1.m)/p1.x);
    reb_add(r, p1);

    struct reb_particle p2 = {0};    // Planet 2
    p2.x     = 1;
    p2.m      = 1.89e-3;
    p2.vy     = sqrt(r->G*(star.m+p2.m)/p2.x);
    reb_add(r, p2);

    tau_a = calloc(sizeof(double),r->N);
    tau_e = calloc(sizeof(double),r->N);

    tau_a[2] = 2.*M_PI*20000.0;    // Migration timescale of planet 2 is 20000 years.
    tau_e[2] = 2.*M_PI*200.0;     // Eccentricity damping timescale is 200 years (K=100).

    reb_move_to_com(r);

    system("rm -v orbits.txt"); // delete previous output file

    reb_integrate(r, tmax);
}

void migration_forces(struct reb_simulation* r){
    const double G = r->G;
    const int N = r->N;
    struct reb_particle* const particles = r->particles;
    struct reb_particle com = particles[0]; // calculate migration forces with respect to center of mass;
    for(int i=1;i<N;i++){
        if (tau_e[i]!=0||tau_a[i]!=0){
            struct reb_particle* p = &(particles[i]);
            const double dvx = p->vx-com.vx;
            const double dvy = p->vy-com.vy;
            const double dvz = p->vz-com.vz;

            if (tau_a[i]!=0){     // Migration
                p->ax -=  dvx/(2.*tau_a[i]);
                p->ay -=  dvy/(2.*tau_a[i]);
                p->az -=  dvz/(2.*tau_a[i]);
            }
            if (tau_e[i]!=0){     // Eccentricity damping
                const double mu = G*(com.m + p->m);
                const double dx = p->x-com.x;
                const double dy = p->y-com.y;
                const double dz = p->z-com.z;

                const double hx = dy*dvz - dz*dvy;
                const double hy = dz*dvx - dx*dvz;
                const double hz = dx*dvy - dy*dvx;
                const double h = sqrt ( hx*hx + hy*hy + hz*hz );
                const double v = sqrt ( dvx*dvx + dvy*dvy + dvz*dvz );
                const double r = sqrt ( dx*dx + dy*dy + dz*dz );
                const double vr = (dx*dvx + dy*dvy + dz*dvz)/r;
                const double ex = 1./mu*( (v*v-mu/r)*dx - r*vr*dvx );
                const double ey = 1./mu*( (v*v-mu/r)*dy - r*vr*dvy );
                const double ez = 1./mu*( (v*v-mu/r)*dz - r*vr*dvz );
                const double e = sqrt( ex*ex + ey*ey + ez*ez );        // eccentricity
                const double a = -mu/( v*v - 2.*mu/r );            // semi major axis
                const double prefac1 = 1./(1.-e*e) /tau_e[i]/1.5;
                const double prefac2 = 1./(r*h) * sqrt(mu/a/(1.-e*e))  /tau_e[i]/1.5;
                p->ax += -dvx*prefac1 + (hy*dz-hz*dy)*prefac2;
                p->ay += -dvy*prefac1 + (hz*dx-hx*dz)*prefac2;
                p->az += -dvz*prefac1 + (hx*dy-hy*dx)*prefac2;
            }
        }
        com = reb_get_com_of_pair(com,particles[i]);
    }
}

void heartbeat(struct reb_simulation* r){
    if(reb_output_check(r, 20.*M_PI)){
        reb_output_timing(r, tmax);
    }
    if(reb_output_check(r, 40.)){
        reb_integrator_synchronize(r);
        reb_output_orbits(r,"orbits.txt");
        reb_move_to_com(r);
    }
}

This example is located in the directory examples/planetary_migration