# Operators

REBOUND allows you to multiply particles with scalars. In the code blow, the particle's position and velocity coordinates, and its mass are all multiplied by a constant.

struct reb_simulation* r = reb_create_simulation();
reb_add_fmt(r, "m x vx", 1., 1., 1.);
reb_particle_imul(&(r->particles), 2.);

sim = rebound.Simulation()
sim.particles *= 2.


You can also add or subtract particles from each other. This will add or subtract the particles' position, velocity and mass from each other.

struct reb_particle p1 = {.m=1., .x=1, .vx=1};
struct reb_particle p2 = {.m=2., .x=2, .vx=2};
reb_particle_iadd(&p1, &p2); // p1.m, p1.x, p1.vx will now all be 3. p2 remains unchanged.
reb_particle_isub(&p1, &p2); // p1.m, p1.x, p1.vx will be 1.

p1 = rebound.Particle(m=0., x=1., vx=1.)
p2 = rebound.Particle(m=0., x=1., vx=1.)
p1 += p2 # p1.m, p1.x, p1.vx will now all be 3. p2 remains unchanged.
p1 -= p2 # p1.m, p1.x, p1.vx will be 1.


In all the C functions, the first particle gets modified in place. In python, one can also use the multiply, add, and subtract operations to create new particles. The following operations do not affect the original particles p1 and p2.

p1 = rebound.Particle(m=0., x=1., vx=1.)
p2 = rebound.Particle(m=0., x=1., vx=1.)
p3 = p1 + p2  # p3 is a new particle
p4 = p1 + p2  # p4 is a new particle
p5 = 2.*p1    # p5 is a new particle


Tip

These particle operations can be very helpful when initializing particles. For example, you can create initialize two particles using orbital parameters and then easily create another particle exactly in between these two particles.

sim = rebound.Simulation()
p_middle = (p1+p2)/2. # exactly in between the two planets


The distance between two particles in 3D space is often required in various calculations. REBOUND has a convenience function for that:

struct reb_particle p1 = {.m=1., .x=1, .vx=1};
struct reb_particle p2 = {.m=2., .x=2, .vx=2};
double distance = reb_particle_distance(&p1, &p2);


In python this is implemented using the power operator (**):

p1 = rebound.Particle(m=0., x=1., vx=1.)
p2 = rebound.Particle(m=0., x=1., vx=1.)
distance = p1 ** p2